Token Investment Summit, Vienna

To demonstrate how far Blockchain, cryptocurrencies and digital assets have permeated the traditional world of asset management, the Token Investment Summit in Vienna (organised by Crypto42 and hosted by the Vienna University of Economics and Business) covered a number of topics of particular interest to institutional investors.

Brave New Coin Head of Research, Rafael Delfin introduces the General Taxonomy for Cryptographic Assets

William Mougayer kicked the day off, discussing the need to define “Blockchain fundamentals”. In particular, some of the token jargon needs to be better explained (air dropping, locking, burning), and some industry practices (token definition, protocol design, staking, and on-chain governance) require more formal and consistent standards. Projects need to address their “Token-Market Fit”; chains need to think about their scaling and interoperability; and tokens need to deal with decentralized exchanges, post trade clearing, and asset classification.

Next, Rafael Delfin from Brave New Coin presented the General Taxonomy for Cryptographic Assets (covered here before), followed by pitches on behalf of Rigoblock (decentralized fund infrastructure), HydroMiner (green mining), Conda (equity tokens via a crowdfunding platform), Artis (time-based value or asset transfer on chain), Streem (“start & end” events only) and Ocean Protocol (the data exchange network from BigChainDB).

There was an overview of ICO regulation, comparing some of the developments in Germany (Bundes Block’s Token Regulation Paper), Austria (University of Graz’s KryptoStaat project), Switzerland (FINMA paper on ICOs) and Gibraltar (GBX token listing using a risk-based model).

Much of the day was given over to discussing compliance, taxation, accounting, token economics and investment research (such as token valuation models, correlation analysis and crypto returns). There was also a local case study on the Optioment scam, and the potential criminal and civil breaches.

Finally, a panel of VCs provided their perspective how to navigate this asset class, as the industry weighs up the recent wave of more speculative tokens, and moves to more structured capital gains, especially from so-called security tokens.

Next week: CoinAlts Fund Symposium, New York


Tech Talk on Crypto

There’s an adage about not investing in something you don’t understand. There’s another about not betting more than you can afford to lose. And then there’s crypto, which in the words of TV commentator, John Oliver represents “Everything you don’t understand about money combined with everything you don’t understand about computers.” So it was with great interest that I attended last week’s General Assembly’s Tech Talk on Crypto, presented by a team from

This intro to crypto was actually very illuminating, as much for the audience questions as the presentation itself.

To begin with, there was an attempt to explain the underlying technology of Blockchain; which, thanks to a certain YouTube video, seemingly reduced Blockchain to a trading platform or networked database. There was also an analogy to the internet itself: first, we just had protocols like TCP/IP; then we had web browsers; next we had e-mail clients; now we have Netflix.

Next was a reference to Bitcoin‘s mining infrastructure, its associated monetary policy, and the specifics of Bitcoin’s tokenomics. And then we jumped straight to Ethereum and the development of smart contracts – with particular reference to their potential to disrupt/transform the legal profession and the insurance industry.

There was brief mention Venezuela’s “petro”, a government-issued, oil-backed cryptocurrency, as evidence of further disruption in financial markets (although the petro has raised a number of concerns in some quarters). And, in a week when revelations about Facebook and Cambridge Analytica dominated the news, the speakers talked about Blockchain applications displacing even core social media, offering more privacy and control over our personal data and content.

The first of the audience questions were about crypto valuations. “The market decides”, which prompted some comments about market volatility and speculation. There were also some comments about regulation, tax, privacy and security.

Next question: “What about hacking?” “That’s more of a problem with exchanges, than user wallets.” That lead to a brief discussion of different types of wallet, which I’m not sure everyone in the audience fully understood.

We then moved on to look at other types of coins, and specific Blockchain use cases (such as remittance services, patient healthcare records, identity, P2P solar energy trading, voting, education etc.). In particular, Golem (crypto-powered network computing), Brave (crypto-enabled web browser), Steemit (earn crypto from your content) and TenX (an everyday crypto payment solution) were projects that the presenters liked.

Finally, to underscore how little some people understand about fiat currency and traditional financial markets, one attendee, struggling to fathom how the price of Bitcoin was determined, insisted that with equity markets, “the Stock Exchange sets the price…”

Next week: Startup VIC’s Retail & E-Commerce Pitch Night




The General Taxonomy for Cryptographic Assets

It’s not often I get to shamelessly plug a project I have been involved with – so please indulge me in the case of Brave New Coin’s recent publication, “The General Taxonomy for Cryptographic Assets”. It’s a significant piece of work, designed to bring some structure to the classification of this new asset class.

In particular, it aims to help market participants (traders, brokers, investors, fund managers, asset managers, portfolio managers, regulators etc.) make sense of the growing list of digital currencies, as not all tokens are the same. Each one has a specific use case that needs to be understood in the context of Blockchain applications, whether decentralized protocols, or trust-less payment solutions.

Currently capturing around 60 data points and metrics on around 700 tokens, in the coming months the underlying database will double in size, and constantly maintained thereafter to keep current with the most significant assets.

Useful for portfolio screening, construction and diversification, the Taxonomy methodology and underlying database, when combined with Brave New Coin’s aggregated market data and indices will provide a 360-degree view of each asset, combining key elements of a CUSIP or ISIN record, a company directory profile and a regulatory filing.

The significance of having access to robust market data and reference data tools cannot be underestimated, given the price volatility and emerging nature of this new asset class. The Taxonomy will be presented at various Blockchain and Crypto events over the coming weeks, but for further information, the authors can be contacted at:

Next week: APAC Blockchain Conference

Token Issuance Programs – the new structured finance?

We’ve known for some time now that Blockchain and Bitcoin were designed to disrupt the financial services sector. But I suspect that not even the earliest proponents of distributed ledger technology nor the most avid supporters of crypto-currencies anticipated how far and how quickly that disruption would spread. In addition to P2P payments and lending, alternative stock exchanges, and self-executing smart contracts, recent events suggest that digital assets issued on Blockchain infrastructure are themselves the new source of venture capital, that they may even come to be seen as the new form of structured finance (albeit with less complexity and more transparency).

Image: Maria’s Cakes founder issues her own record…. (Source: Maria Lee website)

In the past few weeks, we have seen Token Issuance Programs (sometimes referred to as ICOs – “initial coin offerings” – or token sales) raise extraordinary amounts of capital – $53m for MobileGo, $150m for Bancor. Even allowing for the fact that VC funding rounds have been increasing in recent years, these results are quite staggering – given that the sellers of these tokens have not had to relinquish any equity, or incur any debt either. Because tokens do not represent shares in a company or units in a corporate bond. Nor are they securities in the usual sense, as they do not create any interest or obligation other than an entitlement to be granted a given number of tokens at a predetermined price.

Of course, these tokens may carry the right to use proprietary software or access marketplace platforms, and even acquire future products. In this way, they also resemble crowdfunding projects. But because of the potential returns generated by the increased value tokens may accrue (a combination of network effects, scarcity and market appreciation), there is buyer demand for new tokens backed by the right project.

These token sale results have also benefited from the increased price of Bitcoin, Ethereum and other leading digital currencies – or perhaps the other way round? – as investors get more comfortable with this new asset class. That’s not to say there isn’t talk of a market correction, or even a bubble. But despite the apparent risks, and the occasional exchange outage, new token issuance and crypto-currency trading are generating growing interest – not just from currency speculators, but also asset managers and traditional investors. No doubt helped by developments in markets like Japan, where crypto-currencies are now a legally recognized form of payment.

As for structured finance, some projects are looking to issue tokens that are linked to or represent an underlying asset, such as a pool of loans. In the case of securitization, for example, Blockchain technology can not only help to structure the token issuance (via smart contracts, for example), it can also provide better transparency on the underlying loan performance (using real-time repayment data from bank feeds, for example).

Of course, there have been some speed bumps along the way for Blockchain-derived assets, most notably the infamous DAO “hack” of last year.  Plus, the price of Bitcoin continues to display considerable volatility, which makes it harder for some investors to embrace. And if anyone is wondering why this week’s blog features an image of a Hong Kong cake shop owner, it relates to the Asian Currency Crisis of 1997-98. Maria’s Bakery was a famous chain of shops that sold coupons at a discount, that could be redeemed for cakes at any time in the future. It was a practice that spread to other retail sectors. But during the market jitters caused by failing currencies and a tightening of credit, there was a run on Maria’s coupons, which coincided with a 2% fall on the Hong Kong stock exchange. This may have been coincidental, but it also demonstrates that financial markets can be sidelined by the most unexpected events. Like, who would have made the connection between over-extended home owners in parts of the USA with the worst global financial crisis for 80 years…?

NOTE: The comments above are made in a purely personal capacity, and do not purport to represent the views of Brave New Coin or any other organisations I work with. These comments are intended as opinion only and should not construed be as financial advice.

Next week: Expert vs Generalist