End to #geoblocking proposed in Competition Policy Review

Australian consumers would benefit from key Recommendations contained in the Competition Policy Review Draft Report released last week – meaning better access to, and cheaper prices for digital content and tech products. In particular:

  • any remaining prohibitions on parallel imports would be abolished, unless there is a public interest factor in retaining them; and
  • Intellectual Property licenses would no longer be exempt from the requirements of the Competition and Consumer Act.


I don’t propose to cover the whole scope of the Policy Review here – but instead focus on the practice known as geo-blocking, whereby customers in one jurisdiction can be prohibited from buying goods and services from another jurisdiction, simply due to their country of residence. (For example, Australian consumers are currently unable to purchase music downloads from Amazon’s dedicated Australian site, or from any of its international sites; and numerous titles listed on iTunes’ US and UK stores are not available for download via iTunes Australia.)


It is now more than 20 years since the Hilmer Report (which led to the National Competition Policy), and as last week’s Draft Report states, much has changed since then in terms of new technology, market globalisation, the Internet and the digital economy. (Back in the mid-90s, before Amazon, PayPal and eBay, I recall having to buy from overseas via e-mail – including the payment information!)

The Review Panel, under the Chairmanship of Professor Ian Harper is to be commended for the speed of its draft review, and the breadth and depth of its Draft Recommendations, which cover a full range of structural and regulatory reforms. The Review was announced in December 2013, and based on current performance, is on target to deliver its Final Report within 12 months of being launched. (But I don’t expect much to happen by way of legislation until after the next Federal Election in 2016.)

The end of geo-blocking?

Most notable for the purposes of this article is Draft Recommendation 9 – the removal of any remaining prohibitions on parallel imports. Since this is a rather technical aspect of IP law, and because the proposal seeks primarily to benefit consumers, any reforms in this area will require extensive public education initiatives.

For example, some current restrictions on parallel imports may relate to health and safety issues (e.g., electrical items sourced from overseas which are not designed to run on Australian power supplies); others appear to be merely the capricious whims of trade mark owners, copyright holders, IP licensors and their licensees, designed to create artificial market barriers, especially when it comes to product pricing and availability).

So, if consumers and businesses are going to benefit once parallel imports are fully legitimized, they will need help in understanding their rights and obligations under the proposed reform. By way of example, if I can’t download a movie from iTunes Australia, and if this content is not available via any other local online store, can I force Apple to sell it to me if it is available in another iTunes store (and at a truly comparable price)? Can I seek to buy a copy directly from the copyright owner or from the locally licensed distributor, even though neither of them have chosen to make it available in this market?

Shades of Grey?

Parallel imports (also known as “grey market goods”) are not the same as counterfeit or pirated goods – grey goods are authentic and otherwise legitimate products originating in one country that have not been specifically licensed for direct sale or distribution into another market. Given that local consumers can already access many goods from overseas online retailers, and since items bought for personal consumption are generally not caught by the ban on parallel imports, there are already ways to get round these obstacles. (For example, Levis Australia does not import all sizes of its jeans for sale in the domestic market, but a careful search on eBay can usually uncover a retailer in the US willing to ship direct – and probably cheaper than buying locally if available, even allowing for shipping costs).

The bum deal for Aussie consumers

In its Issues Paper released in April this year, the Review Panel highlighted the impact of international price discrimination on Australian consumers, which in my view is a direct consequence of both the ban on parallel imports and restrictive IP licensing practices:

“A further issue in relation to imports is international price discrimination. International price discrimination occurs when sellers charge different prices in different countries and those prices are not based on the different costs of doing business in each country. A recent parliamentary inquiry found that Australian consumers and businesses must often pay much more for their IT products than their counterparts in comparable economies, in some cases paying 50 to 100 per cent more for the same product.” (1)

Noting that price discrimination is not specifically prohibited under Australian competition law, the Issues Paper also acknowledged that consumers and businesses alike already circumvent this “legitimate” trade practice via parallel imports, despite the potential legal and other risks.

Redefining the market

Unsurprisingly, the Draft Report does not recommend a ban on international price discrimination (2), mainly because of the cost and difficulty of enforcement (similar arguments have been made against lowering the GST-free threshold on online imports). And yet the Review Panel is in favour of extra-territorial reach under the Competition Law (making it easier to pursue legal action against off-shore parties). It also suggests redefining the scope of “competition” to include markets for goods and services that are “capable” of being imported or supplied into Australia (Draft Recommendations 20 and 21).

Delivering the desired outcome

Consequently, for Draft Recommendation 9 to have any real impact, it must facilitate consumer and business access to goods (especially technology, software and other digital content) that have not been licensed for direct sale or distribution in Australia, either because the overseas manufacturer chooses not to make it available in the Australian market or because the local licensee/distributor chooses not to supply it (or not at a comparable price). In other words, it should not be more onerous (or expensive) for an Australian customer to acquire legitimate goods from overseas if an off-shore supplier is willing to fulfil local orders direct. (Expect huge resistance from the global tech suppliers – who are probably concerned about the implications for transfer pricing and other international tax issues; and await a backlash from the FMCG sector – where some companies have already been disputing territorial control over sales of instant coffee.)(3)

Related reforms

Along with the repeal of Section 51(3) of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (to bring IP licenses within the purview of the Act – Draft Recommendation 8), the Draft Report also proposes a thorough review of Intellectual Property law in light of “new developments in technology and markets” and their impact on competition (Draft Recommendation 7).

The latter recommendation can be linked not only to the practice of geo-blocking, but also to the emergence of the shared economy, aspects of which challenge traditional notions of markets, vertical supply chains, business models, ownership and licensing.  Elsewhere, the Draft Report comments on the significance of services like Uber (which has faced industry resistance since launching in Australia).


Most importantly, the Review Panel is keen to ensure Australia has a more relevant (and robust) IP regime that both encourages innovation and enhances market competition. A positive start would be an end to geo-blocking.


(1) Source: The Australian Government Competition Policy Review – Issues Paper, April 2014, Chapter 2.6 (emphasis added; see also my earlier blog).

(2) It is worth noting that price discrimination is prohibited within the EU.

(3) The full ACCC Decision can be found here. Makes for interesting reading.

NEXT WEEK: What is CSIRO up to?


Pricing for the Digital Age – A Postscript

Last week I wrote about pricing for digital content. In the past, I’ve also written about geo-blocking.

So, I decided to conduct a (very) small experiment in price comparison by market territory.

I chose a specific book title, and compared prices of the digital and print editions, between several retail sites, in 3 markets (Australia, UK and USA).

Before I conducted the exercise, my expectation was that Australia would be the most expensive (based on current exchange rates*), and USA the cheapest, but not much cheaper than the UK. But I was surprised by the results….

First, digital version:

Apple’s iTunes store: Australia A$37.99; USA A$37.76; UK A$41.83

Amazon: Australia A$20.60; USA A$20.61; UK A$33.18

eBooks.com: Australia A$40.95; USA A$37.72; UK A$48.03

Booktopia: A$39.95

I was surprised that the iTunes price between Australia and the USA was so close – when it comes to music, iTunes Australia is usually far more expensive than either the USA or UK. Amazon appeared to have the title on sale, but I can’t work out why the UK prices are so much higher. Thanks to geo-blocking, of course, I cannot access the slightly cheaper price in the US store. But I was able to buy it from Amazon.com (and at the same, cheaper price as Amazon.com.au).

Second, print edition (based on shipping costs to/within Australia):

Amazon: Australia not available; USA A$40.89 (inc. P&P to Australia); UK A$50.37 (inc. P&P to Australia)

Book Depository: A$32.31 (inc. P&P from UK)

Angus & Robertson: A$39.99 (inc. P&P within Australia)

Readings: A$40.95 (inc. P&P within Australia)

Booktopia: A$48.45 (inc. P&P within Australia)

Clearly, Book Depository is the best option by far (and is frequently so) and seems willing to undercut its parent company, Amazon – or maybe there’s a deliberate strategy as Amazon.com.au does not yet sell physical products. However, the much higher price charged by Australia’s Booktopia might speak volumes about the state of local retail….



Prices were converted from the published local price on each website, then converted to A$ using xe.com



Pricing for the Digital Age

Understanding the 4 Ps of marketing (Product, Price, Place, Promotion) has traditionally been critical to commercial success.

Theory has it that if you produce the right product for your target market, at the right price, make it available in the right place, and give it the right promotion, the market will buy it.

The model has worked well for both goods and services. But how is the model holding up in the digital arena?

In the Digital Age, a combination of technology, different transaction models and new marketing tools means that the Product (content), Place (internet) and Promotion (social media) not only co-exist, they are so inter-twined that in some cases they are almost one and the same thing: for example, a Justin Bieber video clip on Vevo, an in-app purchase for Angry Birds, BBC news headlines on Twitter. The boundaries are blurred between the content, the means of production, and the point of distribution and promotion.

So, how do content providers approach Pricing? If that’s the main point of differentiation, how do they compete on price (even though we sort of know that competing on price alone is often a race to the bottom, where nobody wins)?

In fact, even though the price of digital content sold via services like iTunes and Google Play is set by the content owner, they generally have to price according to set price bands and at specific price points determined by the retail platform – and often for particular territories (thanks to the practice of geo-blocking). The alternatives are to sell direct (which means creating a separate sales and distribution infrastructure) or via 3rd party platforms (which may not have the market presence of iTunes or Google Play).

With so much content available for “free” (as long as customers are willing to submit certain personal information, or are prepared to tolerate advertising) the current wisdom suggests that you have to give (some) content away in order to attract customers who might be willing to pay for it (over time). But is that a long-term strategy for success?

In my experience, pricing in the Digital Age is all about the 4 As:

  • Actual Costs – what are the costs of design, development, production and distribution (plus overheads)?
  • Acquisition Costs – what does it take to get new customers (and not just “followers” and “likes”)?
  • Adhesion Costs – what makes content “sticky” (and what will it take to keep your customers once they start paying)? Is it frequent new content? Is it service quality? Is it establishing brand loyalty?
  • Alternative Costs – what choices do your customers have (both traditional and non-traditional competition)? What are the switching costs?

Finally, when competing on price, especially if it’s not a like-for-like comparison, where are the acceptable customer trade-offs between your product and a competing service (e.g., do you know the customer drivers and the purchase decision processes)? What do your customers think they are paying for? Just because you place a high degree of value on some aspect of your content (e.g., exclusivity) does the customer value it the same way?



Australian MPs recommend a ban on geo-blocking

In a recent blog about geo-blocking, I commented on the frustrations of Australian consumers in trying to access digital content. That blog was written in light of a parliamentary inquiry into IT price discrimination.

ImageA Report by the House of Representatives Infrastructure and Communications Committee has just been published, and makes for some fascinating reading.

The Report reveals a number of key themes:

  • There is strong evidence that Australian consumers pay between 50 and 100 per cent more for the same product than consumers in comparable markets.
  • Price differentials cannot be fully explained by the so-called “Australia tax” (i.e., the relatively higher costs of doing business locally, due to wages, taxes, market regulation, shipping costs, economies of scale, etc.).
  • Consumer complaints about price discrimination are not being taken seriously by the industry as a whole.
  • Industry participants either deflected responsibility for price discrimination to other parts of the supply chain, or blamed inconsistent market practices as justifying the need for different regional and national price policies.
  • Despite being given the opportunity by the Committee to defend their pricing practices in public, most industry participants declined to co-operate in full; this gave rise to Apple, Adobe and Microsoft each being compelled to give evidence.
  • A number of submissions made by industry participants appeared to be disingenuous, self-serving, evasive and even misleading.

The Committee accepts that IT vendors are entitled to run their businesses as they see fit, and there is nothing to stop them from charging whatever prices they like. There was also general acknowledgment that copyright holders must be able to protect their IP assets.

However, geo-blocking (especially of digital content) simply reinforces price disparity based on a customer’s geographical location, rather than protecting the interests of copyright holders. Further, although so-called “Technological Protection Measures” (TPM) or “Effective Technological Measures” (ETM) and “Digital Rights Management” systems (DRM) may have a legitimate role in controlling copyright (and as such they enjoy protection under the relevant Copyright Law), their net effect has been to limit competition and to lock consumers into “walled gardens” which places considerable power in the hands of IT vendors as to how, when and where consumers access content.

In short, the Committee made several recommendations designed to address price discrimination and restricted market access imposed on Australian consumers, including:

  • Remove any remaining restrictions on parallel imports (in a bid to increase market competition among distributors and retailers).
  • Clarify the legal circumvention of TPM/ETM/DRM barriers that are purely designed as geo-blocking tools (rather than copyright protection measures).
  • Educate Australian consumers about their ability to buy cheaper goods from overseas, or to legally circumvent geo-blocking (without compromising product warranties or infringing copyright).
  • As a last resort, place a ban on geo-blocking and outlaw contacts or terms of service that rely on and enforce geo-blocking.

Unfortunately, while this Report is of great significance to the Australian digital economy, and seeks to achieve a balance between the rights of copyright holders and the interests of consumers, it is likely to be overshadowed by concerns about tax avoidance in respect to multinational companies. No doubt Australian consumers will make a connection between global IT companies whose products they buy, and transnational tax minimization strategies linked to transfer pricing policies and the routing of content royalties and copyright licensing fees via low-tax jurisdictions.